Are There Different Types Of Sleep Apnea
There are three types:
Obstructive sleep apnea. This is the most common type. It happens when your airways repeatedly become completely or partially blocked during sleep, usually because the soft tissue in the back of your throat collapses. During these episodes, your diaphragm and chest muscles work harder than normal to open your airways. You may start to breathe with loud gasps or jerk your body. This can affect your sleep, lower the flow of oxygen to your vital organs, and lead to abnormal heart rhythms.
Central sleep apnea. With this type, your airway doesnât become blocked. Instead, your brain fails to tell your muscles to breathe because of issues in your respiratory control center. Itâs related to the function of your central nervous system. Central sleep apnea happens most often in people with neuromuscular disease such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , those whoâve had a stroke, or in people with heart failure or other forms of heart, kidney, or lung disease.
Complex sleep apnea syndrome. This condition, which doctors also call treatment-emergent central sleep apnea, happens when you have both obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea.
The Benefits Of Giving Mild Sleep Apnea The Slip
Keeping your bedmate happy can keep your couch-surfing to a minimum. Making simple lifestyle changes to stop mild sleep apnea symptoms can reduce the risk of several health problems, including low testosterone , high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, and erectile dysfunction.
What prevents you from snoring? Share your tips in the comments below!
What Is Sleep Apnoea
Sleep apnoea occurs when the throat muscles relax too much during sleep. This is the common form of sleep apnoea.
A rarer form is central sleep apnoea where breathing stops during sleep and there is a pause before breathing begins again. It is caused by a disruption to the mechanisms that control the rate and depth of breathing.
If you have sleep apnoea, the walls of your throat will collapse and become narrow as you breath in while you sleep. Air tries to travel through the narrowed airway and causes vibrations in tissues in the back of the throat these vibrations produce sounds known as snoring.
Sometimes the throat can collapse so much that not enough air can get into the lungs , or it blocks off completely and no air gets into the lungs .
You may have partial or complete obstructions where your breathing may decline or stop for a short time . These are sometimes called episodes or interruptions.
When these things happen, the brain gets messages that something is wrong and will arouse itself from sleep for a few seconds. Most people are not aware of these arousals.
This pattern can repeat itself hundreds of times every night, causing you to have fragmented sleep. This can leave you feeling unrefreshed in the morning with fatigue and sleepiness throughout the day and contributing to poor concentration and work performance.
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Other Treatments For Sleep Apnoea
If you sleep mostly on your back then positional therapy can be beneficial. This works to prevent you from sleeping on your back. There are different ways of doing this, including the simple ‘tennis ball technique’ , alarm devices and also using a number of positional pillows to help you change your sleeping position.
How To Spot The Symptoms Of Sleep Apnea
- Gasping or choking during sleep
- Experiencing pauses when you breathe at night
- Mood issues
- Waking up throughout the night to go to the bathroom
If you have any of these symptoms, or have newly-diagnosed atrial fibrillation and high blood pressure with or without daytime sleepiness, its important to talk to your doctor about the possibility of sleep apnea, says Mendez. Women often have insomnia but not snoring, and some people get tipped off that they might have a sleep problem because of an activity tracker like a Fitbit, he says. Bottom line: Be open to the possibility of sleep apnea, even if you dont think you present in the typical way.
If your doctor suspects you have sleep apnea, he or she can then order you an at-home sleep apnea test, which eliminates the need to go to a sleep center to be analyzed, says Mendez. Its far more convenient and accessible to patients. Getting this test could potentially be a lifesaving decision, he says.
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Other Devices To Help You Breathe
Oral breathing devices reposition your tongue and jaw during sleep, which opens up your airways. They may be used for people who have mild to moderate sleep apnea. They may also be used for people with severe sleep apnea who try CPAP but find out that it does not work out for them. A dentist will shape the device to fit your mouth.
Your doctor may suggest that you use nasal dilators to help keep your airways open while you sleep. Nose strips widen the nostrils and improve airflow. Nasal disks have a valve that makes it harder for you to breathe out. This causes a little back-pressure in the airways that may help keep them open. You can get many of these devices without a prescription. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about your options.
Symptoms Others May Notice Include:
- Episodes of not breathing , which may occur as few as 5 times an hour to 30 or more times an hour . How many episodes you have determines how severe your sleep apnea is.
- Loud snoring. Almost all people who have sleep apnea snore. But not all people who snore have sleep apnea.
- Restless tossing and turning during sleep.
- Nighttime choking or gasping spells.
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Metabolic Abnormalities In Osa At Risk For Incident Hypertension: A Preliminary Analysis
Given the stronger association of mild/moderate OSA with incident hypertension in young and middle-aged adults as compared to older adults, we used multivariable adjusted logistic regression models to explore whether this association could be explained by a stronger association of OSA with components of the metabolic syndrome in young and middle-aged adults. presents the odds ratio 95% CI on the association between OSA and metabolic syndrome components among individuals < 60 and ?60 years old. Individuals with OSA are at higher risk for obesity , diabetes , and high TG in the younger group, but not in the older group. All interactions are significant, suggesting that the association between OSA and metabolic syndrome components is significantly different between young and old.
How Is Sleep Apnea Diagnosed In Children
First, a doctor gathers information from the child and parent or guardian about the childâs sleep habits and any daytime and nighttime symptoms. The doctor may also perform a physical examination of the childâs mouth, neck and throat to look for physical characteristics that increase risk for sleep apnea .
If this initial evaluation indicates further testing is appropriate, the doctor may suggest polysomnography, which is a sleep study performed overnight at a sleep clinic. Polysomnography involves measuring specific body functions while a person is sleeping. It is painless and noninvasive. Polysomnography is the gold standard method for evaluating suspected sleep apnea, as it provides the most definitive results.
Home sleep tests are generally not recommended for children, based on the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Sleep Medicine guidelines.
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Obstructive Sleep Apnea Basics
Snoring happens when air cant move freely through your nose and throat during sleep. As the air forces its way through, the surrounding tissue vibrates and creates the signature snore sound.
Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when air isnt just restricted, but totally blocked. Apnea occurs when the tissues that support your tongue and soft palette, which contains the uvula, combine to totally block air as your body tries to inhale. When your brain realizes your breathing is totally blocked, it wakes you up just enough to manually breath. You gasp for air, but youre awake for such a short amount of time that you dont realize it.
Fatigue Cause No : Hypothyroidism
The thyroid is a small gland at the base of your neck. It controls your metabolism, the speed at which your body converts fuel into energy. When the gland is underactive and the metabolism functions too slowly, you may feel sluggish and put on weight.
Fix: If a blood test confirms your thyroid hormones are low, synthetic hormones can bring you up to speed.
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How Many People Are Getting In Car Accidents Because Of Sleep Apnea
There are some interesting facts about sleep apnea, like that people with sleep apnea are at twice the risk of having a car accident. According to one 2004 study, treating all United States drivers suffering from sleep apnea would save $11.1 billion in collision costs and save 980 lives annually. The correlation between obstructive sleep apnea and driving incidents isnt too surprising and short sleep duration are some of the independent predictors of increased crash risk in people with sleep apnea.
Further, medical patients utilized 23% to 50% more medical resources prior to a sleep apnea diagnosis, and studies show undiagnosed moderate to severe sleep apnea in middle-aged adults may cause $3.4 billion in additional medical costs in the United States.
Sleep Apnea Diagnosis And Oxygen Desaturation Effects
Patients who develop sleep disturbances often seek the aid of a physician who commonly refers them for sleep studies. Sleep studies can yield important diagnostic information about a persons sleep cycles, oxygen levels, and the quantity and length of breathing interruptions.
What is the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and lower oxygen levels during sleep? How does sleep apnea lead to oxygen desaturations that may affect overall health?
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Upper Airway Surgery For Sleep Apnea
If you have exhausted other sleep apnea treatment options, surgery to increase the size of your airway may be a possibility.
The surgeon may remove tonsils, adenoids, or excess tissue at the back of the throat or inside the nose, reconstruct the jaw to enlarge the upper airway, or implant plastic rods into the soft palate. Surgery carries risks of complications and infections, and in some rare cases, symptoms can become worse after surgery.
Fatigue Cause No : Caffeine Overload
Caffeine can improve alertness and concentration in moderate doses. But too much can increase heart rate, blood pressure, and jitteriness. And research indicates too much actually causes fatigue in some people.
Fix: Gradually cut back on coffee, tea, chocolate, soft drinks, and any medications that contain caffeine. Stopping suddenly can cause caffeine withdrawal and more fatigue.
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Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Should Not Be Treated
The diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea generally requires a presenting symptom or symptoms and the demonstration of apneas and/or hypopneas per hour of sleep on a formal sleep study. The diagnosis of mild OSA is not well defined but in a 1999 report of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine , definitions of mild OSA by symptoms of sleepiness and AHI were proposed. These definitions will be used in this review.
Mild symptoms were an unwanted sleepiness or involuntary sleep episodes occurring during activities that require little attention. Examples included sleepiness that is likely to occur while watching television, reading, or traveling as a passenger. Symptoms produce only minor impairment of social or occupational function. Mild levels of AHI were 5 to 15 and moderate were 15 to 30.
Although there are many studies that address treatment of OSA, relatively few focus on mild OSA. In addition, there are several potential treatment modalities. For purposes of this review, continuous positive airway pressure will be the main treatment comparator. Interventions such as attempted weight loss, sleep position, sleep hygiene, etc. will be considered part of usual care and not specific treatment of OSA.
In 2006, The AASM published evidence-based practice parameters on the use of CPAP in the treatment of OSA. The recommendation for mild OSA was as follows:
The evidence review that supported the above recommendation concluded as follows:
Risk Factors For Sleep Apnea
Sleep apnea may affect anyone regardless of age and sex. Here are the most common risk factors:
- Enlarged tonsils
Other factors such as alcoholic beverage intake, administration of sedatives or tranquilizers, also increase the risk of sleep apnea, drugs that usually promotes muscle relaxation. People that smoke tobacco has a higher rate of developing sleep apnea Study says that their risk factor is multiplied by three, compared to people that dont.
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Sleep Apnea And Visceral Fat
Visceral fat is closely associated with insulin resistance and insulin resistance is associated with sleep apnea independently of obesity. Waist circumference is a better predictor of OSA than BMI . In a study we examined whether sleep apnea correlates with visceral, subcutaneous or total fat by using computed tomographic scanning to asses body fat distribution . Male patients with OSA had a greater amount of CT-determined visceral adipose tissue into the abdomen than a group of BMI-matched men without SDB . Interestingly, BMI correlated significantly with total body fat and SC fat , but not with visceral fat. Importantly, visceral, but not SC fat, was significantly correlated with indices of sleep apnea . Our findings are consistent with reports that visceral fat accumulation is an important risk factor for OSA in obese subjects , and the AHI is significantly correlated with intra-abdominal fat but not with subcutaneous fat in the neck region or parapharyngeal fat .
Visceral fat significantly correlated with indexes of sleep apnoea. sleep apnoeics obese controls.
A model of the complex feed forward associations between visceral fat/insulin resistance, inflammatory cytokines, stress hormones, excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep apnoea.
Tests To Confirm Sleep Apnoea
If you have symptoms that suggest obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, or a high score on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, your GP may refer you to a specialist for tests. There are various types of test that can be done whilst you sleep. The ones done may be determined by local policies and availability of equipment. For example:
- A sensor may record snoring volume and body movement whilst you sleep.
- The oxygen level in your blood can be monitored by a probe clipped on to your finger.
- Breathing can be monitored and recorded by the use of special belts placed around the chest and tummy .
- A video of you sleeping may be undertaken.
You may be asked to spend a night in hospital for the tests to be done. However, some of the tests may be done in your own home from equipment supplied by the specialist. The information gained from the tests can help a specialist to firmly diagnose or rule out sleep apnoea.
Your doctor will usually check your blood pressure. They may also suggest other tests to exclude other causes of your sleepiness. For example, a blood test can check for an underactive thyroid gland.
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Always Tired You May Have Sleep Apnea
Getting treatment for obstructive sleep apnea or OSA can save your life and help you feel better every day.
Do you feel tired or have a headache when you wake up in the morning? Something might be going wrong while you sleep that you dont know about: obstructive sleep apnea .
Six Facts About Sleep Apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea is a common and serious sleep disorder that repeatedly causes you to stop breathing during sleep. Warning signs include loud snoring and gasping or choking sounds as you sleep.
Chances are, sleep apnea will impact your life in one way another. It may affect you, your bedpartner, or another family member. Here are six facts about sleep apnea to keep in mind.
1. There are two types of sleep apnea.
Obstructive sleep apnea is most common. It occurs when your muscles relax during sleep, causing soft tissue to collapse and block the airway. You try to breathe but cant. Central sleep apnea occurs due to instability in your bodys breathing control system. Your body stops trying to breathe during sleep.
2. Sleep apnea can occur at any age, even in infants.
Central sleep apnea can occur in infants. It may be a developmental problem or the result of another medical condition. More common is pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. In children, sleep apnea is often caused by large tonsils and adenoids that block the airway during sleep.
3. Sleep apnea increases with age.
4. Sleep apnea is often undiagnosed.
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Fatigue Cause No : Sleep Apnea
Some people think they’re sleeping enough, but sleep apnea gets in the way. It briefly stops your breathing throughout the night. Each interruption wakes you for a moment, but you may not be aware of it. The result: youâre sleep-deprived despite spending eight hours in bed. Your doctor may order a sleep study to check for this.
Fix: Lose weight if you’re overweight, quit smoking, and you may need a CPAP device to help keep your airway passages open while you sleep.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Classified By Severity
Obstructive sleep apnea causes apneic events that reduce blood flow to the brain. When this happens, the brain gets a signal to partially awaken because the body needs to breathe.
After you wake up, you might experience loud gasping, choking, or snorting sounds because you are taking breaths to fight the obstruction. Once the breath is taken and the brain returns back to sleep mode, the process starts up again. This process might occur a few times a night or up to 100 times, depending on the severity of the apnea.
OSA is classified as mild, moderate, or severe.
- Mild OSA: People with mild OSA have 514 breathing apneic events in one hour.
- Moderate OSA: With moderate OSA, a sufferer will experience 1530 episodes in an hour.
- Severe OSA: The person will experience 30 or more episodes in an hour.
Even though mild sleep apnea causes fewer interruptions than moderate or severe OSA, 5 to 14 interruptions in breathing per hour are still a lot for your sleep to be interrupted and for you to stop breathing.
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