What Can I Do To Prevent Neutropenia
Since white blood cells are destroyed as a side effect of chemotherapy, there is nothing specifically that you can do to prevent neutropenia from occurring. Nonetheless, there are several things that you can do to reduce your risk of getting an infection when your white blood cells are low:
Perform excellent daily personal hygiene.
- Wash your hands frequently, especially before eating and after using the bathroom.
- Use alcohol-free, antiseptic mouthwashes daily.
- Do not cut or pick at cuticles. Use a cuticle cream instead. Even if you have a manicure, only cuticle cream should be used.
- Use a deodorant rather than an antiperspirant. Antiperspirants block sweat glands and, therefore, may promote infection.
- When menstruating, use sanitary napkins rather than tampons, which may promote infection in a neutropenic patient.
Avoid situations that will increase your chance of getting an infection.
- Stay away from people who are ill.
- Avoid contact with anyone who has recently been vaccinated, including infants and children.
- Avoid crowds as much as possible. When going to places where there are often a lot of people , try going at off-peak times, when they are not as crowded.
Use extra precautions to decrease the chance of injury and infection.
If you cut or scrape the skin, clean the area immediately with soap and water and bandage as necessary.
When Should I Call My Doctor
Even if you have taken great care to prevent an infection, you may still become infected. If any of the following signs or symptoms of infection occur, call your doctor or nurse immediately. Do not take any medications, even aspirin or other products to lower your temperature, before talking to your doctor.
- oral temperature above 100.5o degrees, chills or sweats
- cough, excess mucous, shortness of breath or painful breathing
- soreness or swelling in your mouth or throat, ulcers or white patches in your mouth, or a change in the color of your gums
- pain or burning with urination or an odor to your urine
- change in the odor, character or frequency of your stool, especially diarrhea
- redness, pain or swelling of any area of your skin
- redness, pain, swelling in the area surrounding any tube you may have
- pus or drainage from any open cut or sore
- an overall feeling of being sick, even if you dont have a temperature or any other sign of an infection
Chronic Mental Stress Affects Platelet Cd63 Expression
In our assessment the chronic mental stress condition solely had a significant effect on the increase of platelet marker CD63. This may be explained by the fact that our study design did not result in high enough chronic stress load . The amount of perceived stress seems to be a key player in the stress response system, the students in the current study rated relatively low amounts of perceived stress although a significant increase could be observed in the chronic mental stress condition compared to the condition without chronic mental stress. This increase was within the values reported for university students in challenging situation . Furthermore our participants were sleeping well and still performing within the recommended range of physical activity . In other studies chronic mental stress in the form of caregiving has been shown to be associated with increased CD62P reactivity . While this demonstrates that chronic mental stress due to an exam preparation certainly differs from that of caregiving or childhood trauma, it has nevertheless been shown previously to be associated with immunological and other biological changes .
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What Are The Signs Of A Low Platelet Count
If your platelet count is low, you may not have any symptoms or signs. A simple blood test could find this condition before you notice any changes. If you have any of these signs, talk to your health care team right away:
More bruises, or worse bruises, than usual
Small purple or red dots under your skin
Nosebleeds or bleeding gums
Muscle or joint pain
Feeling weak or dizzy
When you have a low platelet count, your body may have difficulty stopping bleeding from a nosebleed or a cut.
Managing a low platelet count and other cancer side effects is an important part of your medical care and treatment. This type of care is called palliative care or supportive care.
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Symptoms Of Low White Blood Cell Count
Given that it is a symptom in and of itself, leukopenia can be accompanied by a myriad of other signs depending on what the underlying cause is. However, there are a few common effects the body will experience when your white blood cell count drops. Here are some to look out for.
Anemia: A low red blood cell count can often occur alongside leukopenia as the body begins to lose red blood cells without enough white blood cells to protect them. This results in fatigue, shortness of breath, dizziness, difficulty concentrating, pale skin, leg cramps, and insomnia.
Ulcers:Stomach ulcers are caused by the H. pylori bacteria, which is commonly present but normally held in check. As white blood cell count drops, these buggers can get more active and create sores along the intestinal lining.
Parasites: There are a surprisingly large number of parasites that you encounter on a daily basis, but most are shrugged off or killed. With leukopenia, you become more vulnerable to infection.
Recurrent Illnesses: As you might expect, low white blood cell count can cause you to experience recurrent bouts of illness. These bouts do not necessarily have to be severe, but they will likely seem harder to treat without the bodys defenses at their normal strength. Additionally, you will be more vulnerable to pneumonia as bacteria have an easier time colonizing the lungs.
What Causes Low Platelets In Pregnancy
Outside of pregnancy, a normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000/ÂµL .
Itâs normal for your platelet count to dip by a few thousand during pregnancy, due in part to hemodilution: the body makes more plasma during pregnancy, so the total number of platelets per volume of blood will be lower.
When the number dips below 100,000-150,000/ÂµL, your doctor will want to keep a closer eye on you to reduce the risk of complications.
During pregnancy, about 10 percent of women have platelets counts below 150,000/ÂµL. Of these, approximately:
- 75 percent are due to normal changes in pregnancy
- 21 percent are related to hypertensive diseases, such as preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome
- 4 percent are due to inherited or immunological conditions in which the immune system makes antibodies which attack platelet cells
Approximately 1 percent of patients have platelets counts of less than 100,000/ÂµL, which might impact pregnancy management.
Platelets may be destroyed at a higher rate in pregnancy. As the spleen increases in size due to increased blood volume during pregnancy, it may destroy more platelets in the filtering process.
A severe lack of folic acid in your blood can cause thrombocytopenia, so it is important to take your prenatal vitamins. Certain bacterial and viral illnesses such as Epstein-Barr, HIV, and hepatitis B and C can also lower your platelet count.
Who Does Itp Affect
ITP is more common among children than adults, most often occurring around two to four years of age. Estimates suggest that ITP affects one in every 10 000 children in adults it affects approximately one in 20 000. Among adults, young women are more likely to develop ITP than any other group, for reasons unknown.
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Changes To Your Medicines
Some medicines, such as some antibiotic and antiviral medicines, can cause thrombocytopenia. Other medicines, such as blood-thinning treatments and some drugs you can buy without a prescription can increase your risk of bleeding if you have thrombocytopenia. Your medical team will check what medicines you are taking and will stop or adjust the dose of any that might be affecting your platelet count or your risk of bleeding.
If you are having chemotherapy and your platelets are very low, your chemotherapy dose might be reduced, or you might have a longer break between treatment cycles to give your platelet count time to recover. Sometimes, your chemotherapy regimen might be changed.
How Is Itp Treated
For most children and adults, ITP is not a serious condition. Acute ITP in children often goes away on its own within a few weeks or months and does not return. For a small number of children, ITP does not go away on its own, and the child may need treatment.
Chronic ITP varies from person to person and can last for many years. Even people who have serious types of chronic ITP can live for decades. Most people who have chronic ITP can stop treatment at some point and maintain a safe platelet count.
Treatment depends on your platelet count and whether you have any symptoms. In mild cases, you may not need any treatment, and your provider will monitor your condition to make sure that your platelet count does not become too low. If you need treatment, your treatment plan may include medicines and procedures. If your ITP was caused by an infection, treating the infection may help increase your platelet count and lower your risk of bleeding problems.
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That Severe Fatigue That Children And Adolescents With Immune Thrombocytopenia Experience It May Have Nothing To Do With Low Platelets But May Improve With Certain Second
Fatigue is a significant problem for youth with the rare blood disorder known as immune thrombocytopenia but doesnt appear to be linked to platelet levels, new research shows.1
- Its important for us to think about ITP as any other autoimmune disorder. When its flaring, fatigue is associated. Michelle Sholzberg, MDCM, MSc, St. Michaels Hospital, Toronto
The study, published in a recent issue of the British Journal of Haematology, found that 54% of children and 62% of adolescents with ITP said they experienced moderate-to-severe fatigue, a degree thats comparable to, if not greater than, that for children with cancer, according to the researchers. They found that fatigue improves with ITP treatment, independent of outcomes like bleeding or platelet count.
Platelet counts dont reveal everything
Fatigue is known to be a frequent complaint for adults with ITP, but its impact on younger patients is less well-understood. The link between ITP and fatigue also is unclear it may not be entirely explained by the physiologic manifestations of the condition, but rather may also be associated with depression, anxiety, a decline in physical activity, and other intrinsic aspects of the disease.
Improvements are shown on second-line therapy
ITP and fatigue go hand in hand
Its important, she continues, for us to think about ITP as any other autoimmune disorder. When its flaring, fatigue is associated.
Addressing a paradigm shift
Preventing Bleeding When You Have A Low Platelet Count
When you have a low platelet count, take extra care to avoid situations that could cause bleeding. Here are some tips:
Ask your doctor before drinking alcohol or taking any new medication, including over the counter pain relievers. These can make bleeding problems worse.
Use an extra soft toothbrush and brush gently. Do not floss if your gums bleed.
Blow your nose gently, using a soft tissue.
Be extra careful when using scissors, a knife, a needle, or other sharp tools.
Take precautions to avoid burns when you are cooking, such as by using oven mitts and avoiding skin contact with open flames, steam, hot water, or hot oil.
Shave with an electric razor.
Avoid contact sports and other activities that might cause injury.
Use a nail file with rounded ends to trim nails, instead of nail clippers.
Do not walk around with bare feet, inside or outside.
Think about whether there are ways to reduce your risk of falls at your home.
Be sure to talk with the cancer care team about other safety measures to take to avoid bleeding during the time you or a loved one has a low platelet count. And, ask them in advance what should be done if bleeding occurs, does not stop, or becomes worse. They may want you to call your doctor’s office immediately. It may also be necessary to seek emergency medical care.
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Definition Of Low White Blood Cell Count
The correct term for a blood test or exam is called complete blood count or CBC. Doctors often order a CBC because it analyzes the numbers of cell components, including white blood cells. The normal threshold for white blood cell count may differ. Mayo Clinic states that the normal range is 3.5 billion to 10.5 billion cells per liter of blood. Meanwhile, MEDLINE Plus states that the normal 4,500 to 11,000 white blood cells per microliter .
A CBC is the only way to determine the numbers of white blood cells in the body. Your doctor may order several CBC tests to monitor your blood cell counts.
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What Can Cause A Low Platelet Count
There are several common causes, including:
Chemotherapy. Some types of cancer medications, such as chemotherapy, damage bone marrow. This is the tissue inside your bones where your body makes platelets. A low platelet count from chemotherapy is usually temporary. It is rare that chemotherapy permanently damages bone marrow cells.
Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy does not usually cause a low platelet count. But your platelet levels may go down if you receive a large amount of radiation therapy to your pelvis or if you have radiation therapy and chemotherapy at the same time.
Antibodies. Your body makes proteins called antibodies. They destroy substances that may harm you, such as bacteria and viruses. But sometimes the body makes antibodies that destroy healthy platelets.
Specific types of cancer. Certain cancers such as leukemia or lymphoma can lower your platelet count. The abnormal cells in these cancers can crowd out healthy cells in the bone marrow, where platelets are made.Less common causes of a low platelet count include:
Cancer that spreads to the bone. Some cancers that spreads to the bone may cause a low platelet count. The cancer cells in the bones can make it difficult for the bone marrow inside of bones to make platelets.
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Reasons For Low Platelet Count
Loss of platelets is a severe problem as it leads to blood loss from our bodies. There can be multiple reasons behind less number of platelets either they are getting destroyed, or enough are not getting produced.
This problem could be due to the following reasons, like:
- Reduced production of blood platelets due to anemia, viral infections, leukemia, chemotherapy, excessive alcohol consumption, and deficiency of Vitamin B12.
- Breakdown of blood platelets is due to health problems like a bacterial infection in the blood ITP, TTP, reaction to autoimmune disease, and medicines.
- The presence of blood platelets in the spleen due to cancer or severe liver-related disease can also be the reason.
- Some symptoms of low platelets include prolonged bleeding from cuts, weakness, fatigue, bleeding through urine, or stool, rashes on the skin.
With some little changes in lifestyle and by following a few home remedies, the blood platelet count increases quickly.
Food Allergies Food Intolerance And Fatigue
Symptoms: Fatigue, sleepiness, continued exhaustion
Although food is supposed to give you energy, medical research suggests that hidden food intolerances or allergies can do the opposite. In fact, fatigue may be an early warning sign of food intolerance or food allergy. Celiac disease, which happens when you cant digest gluten, may also cause fatigue.
Ask your doctor about the elimination diet. This is a diet in which you cut out certain foods linked to a variety of symptoms, including sleepiness within 10 to 30 minutes of eating them, for a certain period of time to see if that makes a difference. You can also talk to your doctor about a food allergy test or invest in a home test such as ALCAT which may help you identify the offending foods.
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Chronic Conditions That Cause Anemia Of Inflammation
Many different chronic conditions can cause inflammation that leads to anemia, including
- other chronic diseases that involve inflammation, such as diabetes and heart failure
In people with certain chronic conditions, anemia may have more than one cause. For example
- Causes of anemia in CKD may include inflammation, low levels of EPO due to kidney damage, or low levels of the nutrients needed to make red blood cells. Hemodialysis to treat CKD may also lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
- People with IBD may have both iron-deficiency anemia due to blood loss and anemia of inflammation.
- In people who have cancer, anemia may be caused by inflammation, blood loss, and cancers that affect or spread to the bone marrow. Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy may also cause or worsen anemia.
How To Treat Thrombocytopenia
The treatment you will receive for thrombocytopenia ultimately depends on the severity and cause of the condition.
If there is no excessive bleeding and platelet counts are not dangerously lowor are still within a safe realmtreatment may consist of little more than monitoring the situation.
Your doctor may schedule some follow-up tests and ask you to pay attention to new bruises or markings. You will be asked to alert them if you notice changes prior to your follow up.
In more severe cases where bleeding is heavier and platelet counts are lower, thrombocytopenia is treated with medicine.
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